Hyundai Cars – Drive Home a Relationship

The small car industry has grown by leaps and bounds and has the potential to grow a lot more than what it is at present. This is good news for all automobile enthusiasts who are really passionate about cars. India was once a country that did not have many cars on the road, but now things have changed – almost every middle class family now owns a car. This demand for cars keeps increasing as more and more people become financially stable to afford a car.

The most preferred cars in India are the small cars which are also known as the “hatch backs”. These cars are small and easily maneuverable. Not to mention the excellent fuel economy they give. Apart from this, there are the sedans and the SUV’s which are also in great demand, owing to the growing economy.

Such demand for cars has caught the eye of many foreign car manufacturers like Hyundai, Ford, Chevrolet, Fiat, Skoda and Suzuki. Out of these, Hyundai has emerged as the second largest car manufacturer in India. The cars in their stable include top sellers like the Hyundai Santro, the Hyundai Accent and the Hyundai Elantra. The latest inclusion into the Hyundai stables is the Hyundai i10 and the Hyundai i20. These two cars come equipped with a lot of interesting feature and are powered by the Kappa engine.

The Hyundai price is also pretty competitive, compared to the prices offered by other car manufacturers. Most middle class families opt for Hyundai cars simply because of the Hyundai price and the quality they deliver. The cheapest Hyundai car that is available currently is the Hyundai Santro, which costs a little over Rs. 2 – Rs. 2.5 lakhs. This isn’t the cheapest car in the market but it definitely is an amazing car to drive and that too at a very low price. Hyundai price their cars according to the build quality and overall performance of the car. Their main objective is to deliver quality and the most affordable price.

With Hyundai, you drive home a relationship that would last for a long time. Their excellent build quality and prompt services will in no way disappoint you.

The Philippines Economy

The Philippines is the thirty-seventh largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing power parity, according to the International Monetary Fund. The country has a mixed economic system and it is Southeast Asia’s fastest growing economy. The GDP growth rate was of 7.3% in 2007.

Experts believed that the Philippines would become a great economic power in Asia after the end of the World War II, instead of Japan. The population speaks English, the country was allied with the Americans, it had rich natural resources and able workforce.

In 1984 and 1985, the Philippines went through an economic recession. Economic conditions were reduced by 10%. The political turbulences during this time also had a negative effect on the country’s economy.

Filipinos went searching for jobs in other countries, as they had no opportunities at home. They are spread throughout North America (more than four million), Europe and the Middle East. There are eleven million Filipinos working abroad, almost 11 per cent of the entire population.

Agriculture and industry are the most important sectors in the Philippines. Agriculture products produced in the Philippines include sugar, rice, bananas, mangoes, coconut, pork, eggs and corn. The service sector is starting to dominate. The manufacturing sector is also very strong: textiles, electronics, garments, automotive parts and food processing. The industrial sector is focused on the urban regions like the Manila area.

Heavy industries are dominated by the production of glass, fertilizers, cement, steel, iron and refined petroleum products. Mining, one of the country’s most important industries, is also very developed, as the country has rich reserves of nickel, copper or chromite. In the Palawan islands, gas has been recently discovered. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources is not equipped well-enough for the current mining activities. The Philippines has created the first commercial scale geothermal energy installation in the world. Underground heat sources generate 25% of the country’s energy.

The Philippine economy has grown 7.3 per cent in 2008. Recently, the national debt has been reduced considerably. The country is doing better, although a consumer surplus is still a long way off. There is still the need of higher sustained growth rates in order to reduce the levels of poverty and reach its full potential.

Textiles Exports: Post MFA Scenario Opportunities and Challenges


The Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) has governed international trade in textiles and clothing since 1974. The MFA enabled developed nations, mainly the USA, European Union and Canada to restrict imports from developing countries through a system of quotas.

The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) to abolish MFA quotas marked a significant turnaround in the global textile trade. The ATC mandated progressive phase out of import quotas established under MFA, and the integration of textiles and clothing into the multilateral trading system before January 2005.

The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing

ATC is a transitory regime between the MFA and the integration of trading in textiles and clothing in the multilateral trading system. The ATC provided for a stage-wise integration process to be completed within a period of ten years (1995-2004), divided into four stages starting with the implementation of the agreement in 1995. The product groups from which products were to be integrated at each stage of the integration included (i) tops and yarns; (ii) fabrics; (iii) made-up textile products; and (iv) clothing.

The ATC mandated that importing countries must integrate a specified minimum portion of their textile and garment exports based on total volume of trade in 1990, at the start of each phase of integration. In the first stage, each country was required to integrate 16 percent of the total volume of imports of 1990, followed by a further 17 percent at the end of first three year and another 18 percent at the end of third stage. The fourth stage would see the final integration of the remaining 49 percent of trade.

Global Trade in Textile and Clothing

World trade in textiles and clothing amounted to US $ 385 billion in 2003, of which textiles accounted for 43 percent (US $ 169 bn) and the remaining 57 percent (US $ 226 bn) for clothing. Developed countries accounted for little over one-third of world exports in textiles and clothing. The shares of developed countries in textiles and clothing trade were estimated to be 47 percent (US $ 79 bn) and 29 percent, (US $ 61 bn) respectively.

Import Trends in USA

In 1990, restrained or MFA countries contributed as much as 87 percent (US $ 29.3 bn) of total US textile and clothing imports, whereas Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI), North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA), Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and ANDEAN countries together contributed 13 percent (US $ 4.4 bn). Thereafter, there has been a decline in exports by restrained countries; the share of preferential regions more than doubled to reach 30 percent (US $ 26.9 bn) of total imports by USA.

The composition of imports of clothing and textiles by USA in 2003 was 80 percent (US $ 71 bn) and 20 percent (US $ 18 bn), respectively. Asia was the principal sourcing region for imports of both textiles and clothing by USA. Latin American region stood at second position with a share of 12 percent (US $ 2.2 bn) and 26 percent (US $ 18.5 bn), respectively, for textiles and clothing imports, by USA. In most of the quota products imported by USA, India was one of the leading suppliers of readymade garments in USA. Though China is a biggest competitor, the unit prices of China for most of these product groups were high and thus provide opportunities for Indian business.

Import Trends in EU

EU overtook USA as the world’s largest market for textiles and clothing. Intra-EU trade accounted for about 40 percent (US $ 40 bn) of total clothing imports and 62 percent (US $ 32.5 bn) of total textile imports by EU. Asia dominates EU market in both clothing and textiles, with 30 percent (US $ 30 bn) and 17 percent (US $ 8 bn) share, respectively. Central and East European countries hold a market share of 11 percent (US $ 11.3 bn) in clothing and 7.5 percent (US $ 4 bn) in textiles imports of EU.

As regards preferential suppliers, the growth of trade between EU and Mediterranean countries, especially Egypt and Turkey, was highest in 2003. As regards individual countries, China accounted for little over 5 percent (US $ 2.8 bn) of EU’s imports of textiles and over 12 percent (US $ 12.4 bn) of clothing imports.

In the EU market also, India is a leading supplier for many of the textile products. It is estimated that Turkey would emerge as a biggest competitor for both India and China. However, with regard to unit prices, India appears to be lower than both Turkey and China in many of the categories.

Import Trends in Canada

Amongst the leading suppliers of textiles and clothing to Canada, USA had the highest share of over 31 percent (US $ 8.4 bn), followed by China (21% – US $ 1.8 bn) and EU (8% – US $ 0.6 bn). India was ranked at fourth position and was ahead of other exporters like Mexico, Bangladesh and Turkey, with a market share of 5.2 percent (US $ 0.45 bn).

Potential Gains

It may be noted that clothing sector would offer higher gains than the textile sector, in the post MFA regime. Countries like Mexico, CBI countries, many of the African countries emerged as exporters of readymade garments without having much of textile base, utilizing the preferential tariff arrangement under the quota regime. Besides, countries like Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Cambodia emerged as garment exporters due to cost factors, in addition to the quota benefits.

It may be said that countries like China, USA, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkey have resource based advantages in cotton; China, India, Vietnam and Brazil have resource based advantages in silk; Australia, China, New Zealand and India have resource based advantages in wool; China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Turkey, USA, Korea and few CIS countries have resource based advantages in manmade fibers. In addition, China, India, Pakistan, USA, Indonesia has capacity based advantages in the textile spinning and weaving.

China is cost competitive with regard to manufacture of textured yarn, knitted yarn fabric and woven textured fabric. Brazil is cost competitive with regard to manufacture of woven ring yarn. India is cost competitive with regard to manufacture of ring-yarn, O-E yarn, woven O-E yarn fabric, knitted ring yarn fabric and knitted O-E yarn fabric. According to Werner Management Consultants, USA, the hourly wage costs in textile industry is very high for many of the developed countries. Even in developing economies like Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and Mauritius, the hourly wage is higher as compared to India, China, Pakistan and Indonesia.

From the above analysis, it may be concluded that China, India, Pakistan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Brazil, Indonesia, Turkey and Egypt would emerge as winners in the post quota regime. The market losers in the short term (1-2 years) would include CBI countries, many of the sub-Saharan African countries, Asian countries like Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

The market losers in the long term (by 2014) would include high cost producers, like EU, USA, Canada, Mexico, Japan and many east Asian countries. The determinants of increase / decrease in market share in the medium term would however depend upon the cost, quality and timely Review of Indian Textiles and Clothing Industry The textiles and garments industry is one of the largest and most prominent sectors of Indian economy, in terms of output, foreign exchange earnings and employment generation. Indian textile industry is multi-fiber based, using delivery. In the long run, there are possibilities of contraction in intra-EU trade in textile and garments, reduction of market share of Turkey in EU and market share of Mexico and Canada in USA, and thus provide more opportunities for developing countries like India.

It is estimated that in the short term, both China and India would gain additional market share proportionate to their current market share. In the medium term, however, India and China would have a cumulative market share of 50 percent, in both textiles and garment imports by USA. It is estimated that India would have a market share of 13.5 percent in textiles and 8 percent in garments in the USA market. With regard to EU, it is estimated that the benefits are mainly in the garments sector, with China taking a major share of 30 percent and India gaining a market share of 8 percent. The potential gain in the textile sector is limited in the EU market considering the proposed further enlargement of EU. It is estimated that India would have a market share of 8 percent in EU textiles market as against the China’s market share of 12 percent.

Review of Indian textiles and Clothing Industry

The textiles and garments industry is one of the largest and most prominent sectors of Indian economy, in terms of output, foreign exchange earnings and employment generation. Indian textile industry is multi-fiber based, using cotton, jute, wool, silk and mane made and synthetic fibers. In the spinning segment, India has an installed capacity of around 40 million spindles (23% of world), 0.5 million rotors (6% of world). In the weaving segment, India is equipped with 1.80 million shuttle looms (45% of world), 0.02 million shuttle less looms (3% of world) and 3.90 million handlooms (85% of world).

The organised mill (spinning) sector recorded a significant growth during the last decade, with the number of spinning mills increasing from 873 to 1564 by end March 2004. The organised sector accounts for production of almost all of spun yarn, but only around 4 percent of total fabric production. In other words, there are little over 200 composite mills in India leaving the production of fabric and processing to the decentralised small weaving and processing firms. The Indian apparel sector is estimated to have over 25000 domestic manufacturers, 48000 fabricators and around 4000 manufacturer-exporters. Cotton apparel accounts for the majority of Indian apparel exports.

Textiles and Garments Exports from India

The share of textiles and garments exports in India’s total exports in the year 2003-04 stood at about 20 percent, amounting to US $ 12.5 billion. The quota countries, USA, EU and Canada accounted for nearly 70 percent of India’s garments exports and 44 percent of India’s textile exports. Amongst non-quota countries, UAE is the largest market for Indian textiles and garments; UAE accounted for 7 percent of India’s total textile exports and 10 percent of India’s garments exports.

In terms of products, cotton yarn, fabrics and made-ups are the leading export items in the textile category. In the clothing category, the major item of exports was cotton readymade garments and accessories. However, in terms of share in total imports by EU and USA from India, these products hold relatively lesser share than products made of other fibers, thus showing the restrain in this category.

Critical Factors that Need Attention

Though India is one of the major producers of cotton yarn and fabric, the productivity of cotton as measured by yield has been found to be lower than many countries. The level of productivity in China, Turkey and Brazil is over 1 tonne / ha., while in India it is only about 0.3 tonne / ha. In the manmade fiber sector, India is ranked at fifth position in terms of capacity. However, the capacity and technology infusion in this sector need to be further enhanced in view of the changing fiber consumption in the world. It may be mentioned that the share of cotton in world fiber demand declined from around 50 percent (14.7 mn tons) in 1982 to around 38 percent (20.12 mn tons) in 2003, while the share of manmade fiber has increased from 44 percent (13.10 mn tons) to around 60 percent (31.76 mn tons) over the same period.

Apart from low cost labour, other factors that are having impact on final consumer cost are relative interest cost, power tariff, structural anomalies and productivity level (affected by technological obsolescence). A study by International Textile Manufacturers Federation revealed high power costs in India as compared to other countries like Brazil, China, Italy, Korea, Turkey and USA. Percentage share of power in total cost of production in spinning, weaving and knitting of ring and O-E yarn for India ranged from 10 percent to 17 percent, which is also higher than that of countries like Brazil, Korea and China. Percentage share of capital cost in total production cost in India was also higher ranging from 20 percent to 29 percent as compared to a range of 12 to 26 percent in China.

In India, very few exporters have gone in for integrated production facility. It is noted that countries that would emerge as globally competitive would have significantly consolidated supply chain. For instance, competitor countries like Korea, China, Turkey, Pakistan and Mexico have a consolidated supply chain. In contrast, apart from spinning, the rest of the activities like weaving, processing, made-ups and garmenting are all found to be fragmented in India. Besides, the level of technology in the Indian weaving sector is low compared to other countries of the world. The share of shuttle less looms to total loomage in India is 1.8% as compared to Indonesia (10%), Bangladesh (10%), Sri Lanka (12%), China (14%) and Mexico (29%).

The supply chain in this industry is not only highly fragmented but is beset with bottlenecks that could very well slow down the growth of this sector. As a result the average delivery lead times (from procurement to fabrication and shipment of garments) still takes about 45-60 days. With international lead delivery times coming down to 30-35 days, India needs to cut down the production cycle time substantially to stay in the market. Besides, erratic supply of power and water, availability of adequate road connectivity, inadequacies in port facilities and other export infrastructure have been adversely affecting the competitiveness of Indian textiles sector.


It is believed the quota regime has frozen the market share, providing export opportunities even for high cost producers. Thus, in the free trade regime, the pattern of imports in the quota countries would undergo changes. The issues that would govern the market share in the post quota regime would eventually be productivity, raw material base, quality, cost of inputs, including labour, design skills and operation of economies of scale.

It is believed that quotas, by limiting the supply of goods have kept export prices artificially high. Thus, it is estimated that there would be price war in the post quota regime, with competitive price cuts. The price and quantity effects would depend on the efficiency in production process, supply chain management and the price elasticity of demand.

Due to the expected fall in prices, developing countries with high production cost have little choice but to compete head-on with the biggest low cost suppliers. In this process, it is presumed that there would be better resource reallocation in these economies.

It is assumed that quota restrictions would continue beyond 2005 in various forms. It is also widely recognized that removal of quota may not directly provide easy and unrestricted access to developed country markets. There would be non-tariff barriers as well. Standards related to health, safety, environment, quality of work life and child labour would gain further momentum in international trade in textiles and clothing.

Strategies and Recommendations

Cost competitiveness in Indian garments sector has been restrained by limited scale operations, obsolete technology and reservation under SSI policies. While retaining its traditional cost advantages of home grown cotton and low cost labour, India needs to sharpen its competitive edge by lowering the cost of operations through efficient use of production inputs and scale operations. Besides, there are needs for rationalization of charges, levies related to usage of export logistics to remain cost competitive.

As fallout to the quota regime, there would be consolidation of production and restriction on supplying countries, which would necessarily mean improved scale operations. Indian players should also integrate to achieve operating leverage and demonstrate high bargaining power.

It is reported that Chinese textile firms have already invested heavily to expand and grab huge market share in the quota free world. In India, organised players in this sector would require huge investments to remain competitive in the quota free world. These players need to expand and integrate vertically to achieve scale operations and introduce new technologies. It is estimated that the industry would require Rs. 1.5 trillion (US $ 35 billion) new capital investment in the next ten years (by 2014) to lap the potential export opportunities of US $ 70 billion. It is estimated that USA and EU together would offer a market of US $ 42 billion for Indian textiles and garments in 2014.

Technology would play a lead role in the weaving and processing, which would improve quality and productivity levels. Innovations would also be happening in this sector, as many developed countries would innovate new generation machineries that are likely to have low manual interface and power cost. Indian textile industry should also turn into high technology mode to reap the benefits of scale operations and quality. Foreign investments coupled with foreign technology transfer would help the industry to turn into high-tech mode.

Internationally, trading in textile and garment sector is concentrated in the hands of large retail firms. Majority of them are looking for few vendors with bulk orders and hence opting for vertically integrated companies. Thus, there is need for integrating the operations in India also, from spinning to garment making, to gain their attention. This would also bring down the turn around time and improve quality. Indian players should also improve upon their soft skills, viz., design capabilities, textile technology, management and negotiating skills.

Garment manufacturing business is order driven. It would be difficult for the players to keep the workforce full time, even in lean season. This calls for changes in contract labour laws.

Logistics and supply chain would also play a crucial role as timely delivery would be an important requirement for success in international trade. The logistics and supply chain management of Indian textile firms are relatively weak and needs improvement and efficiency. China has already created a world class export infrastructure. Given the volume of projections for exports by India, it may be necessary to create additional export infrastructure, especially investment for modernization of ports. In addition, India needs to invest for creating brand equity, supply chain management and apparel industry education.

To sum up, the ability of Indian textile industry to take advantage of quota phase-out would depend upon their ability to enhance overall competitiveness through exploitation of economies of scale in manufacturing and supply chain. The need of the hour therefore is to evolve a well chalked out strategy, aimed at improvement in the levels of productivity and efficiency, quality control, faster product innovation, quick response to changes in consumer preferences and the ability to move up in the value chain by building brand names and acquiring channels of distribution so as to outweigh the advantages of competitors in the long run.

Source: Export-Import Bank of India, India.

Productivity Of A Spinning Mill

All spinners wish that the spinning productivity of their mill (ring frame production in gms / spindle shift) has the optimum level of efficiency. Though there are many aspects that limit the actual production like ring diameter and its age, lift, age and make of the ring frame, its maximum mechanical speed, type of spindle drive, lot size, fluctuating production program, poor control on RH, lower HP of main driving motor, greater percentage of untrained workers, impoverished technical knowledge of subordinates etc.

Today, there is a pressure from the management to decrease the conversion cost to its lowest possible level because of cut throat competition in both the local and export markets. Ring spinning contributes approximately 70 per cent to the total conversion cost. Hence it is possible to speed up the ring frames to its maximum speed mechanically possible considering that spinning preparatory can feed ring frames at high speed. Also, neither the spinning performance nor the yarn quality is adversely affected by such speeding up of the ring frames.

Currently many spinning mills in India are capable of managing their ring frames at actual great speeds quite successfully counts 30s-40s at 20/21 / 22,000 rpm and finer counts – 60s-76s at up to 24,500 rpm and yet maintaining identical breakage rate of 2 -3 breaks / l00 spindle hrs that they were earlier performing at 15 / 16,000 rpm. Also, the yarn quality has not been affected.

Factors that affect spinning productivity

Many factors that affect spinning productivity / end breakages / yarn properties / yarn complaints are mentioned here. Increasing productivity is not just gearing up the ring frames but making many efforts such as arranging proper fibres bales to blowroom in a particular direction, maintaining product quality at spg preparatory machines, care of cots and aprons, QC checks, etc., to make sure that spinning breakages, winding breaks, vital yarn properties and quality of yarn at the looms should not deteriorate at all.

Polyester staple fibre associated factors

Change the fibre denier, if possible, to the next stage ie if a mill is using 1.4 Den fibre, they can use 1.2 Den. Several advantages here are 2025 per cent higher number of fibres in the cross section giving to superior yarn strength, improvement in uster value, lesser imperfections and reduced hairiness – which in turn improves weaving performance up to 4-6 per cent with Sulzer weaving machines.

The 'compromise' cut length is 44 mm, though it is believed that in the next 5 years or so, mills will change to 38 mm as is the practice world wide.

Many fibre manufacturers give actual values ​​of important fibre properties with each dispatch. How much the mill technicians consider these values ​​provided by the fibre manufacturers is a debatable issue. It has been seen that most of the mill technicians do not have the proper knowledge to evaluate these values ​​of fibre properties. Of course, it is a good idea if the fibre manufacturers provide the information.

In fact the actual values ​​of the following fibre properties should be given with every dispatch:

. Actual denier

. CV% of denier

. Actual tenacity gms / denier

. Actual per cent elongation at break

. T10gms / denier

. Crimps / 25 mm

. Crimp stability

. Crimp take-up

. Actual oil pick-up and its variation. Actual Dry Heat Shrinkage (@ 180 ° C for 30 minutes)

. Fused fibres (in mg / 10 kg of raw fibre)

. Over lengths / multi lengths – Number per 10 gms

. Actual b colour

Polyester fibre bales to blowroom

Most fibre manufacturers should make sure that dispatch of bales is done in serial order. The reason is that the bales are placed in the warehouse in that order. Today's fibre plants are highly productive. Limits sets in which it make about 120 tons / day, are common. Hence a truck load of bales get made in just 2 hrs or so.

The fibre properties do not vary within 2 hrs, but if it takes more days or say a week, many fibre properties do change some times even outside the set limits. So it helps day 'variations are taken care of very well. This ensures smoother running of fibres and no problems of rings under UV and dye variation in the final fabric

It is noted that holding a stock of more than 4 or 6 trucks constantly involves blocking of capital, but

. Ensured no complain of dye variation – streaks warp way and bars weft way

. Ensured no problem of rings under UV lamps.

Hence the benefit received outweighs the extra financial burden. Many mills that have been pursuing this and have gained fully the 3 plus points privilege of above. In Indonesia, many mills utilize Blendomats where 36 bales are placed at one time, hence blending of fibres made on different days.

Performance at spinning preparatory machines

Check that all mechanical data total / break drafts, roller settings, TM (Twist Multiplier) etc, even trumpet diameter is completely matching on each and every machine working on one mixing. Changes in CP (Change Pinion for change in draft) to be done on 'group' basis according to the material being used so as to have minimum machine variations.

Though blending for bales produced is important, it is likewise important to:

1. Number the card cans

2. Check that all cards working on a mixing are represented in the creel of the breaker draw frame

3. Use cans of two different colours at the two deliveries of breaker draw frame

4. Place 4 cans of each colour in the creel of the Finisher Draw frame.

In this way one will have intimate fibre to fibre blending.

Verify all stop motions at both breaker and finisher draw frame and check whether these are functioning well. Also check that the auto leveler is functioning properly.

Check winding tension on the roving remains identical throughout the build of the roving bobbin. Check this by getting 4 full roving bobbins – 2 from front row and 2 from back row; get at least 5 wrappings and work out the average. Place empty roving bobbins on the same 4 spindles and operate the machine until approximately 200 metres is wound up; then detach bobbins and verify wrappings. The variation between the average of wrappings of 'full' and 'empty' bobbins should be less than 2 percent.

Check that no roving bobbin with Uster U percent of greater than 3.5 is sent to ring frames. In order to verify this, check Uster U percent of each and every roving bobbin from a frame once every month. Spot out if there are any arms that are producing off spec bobbins. Get the top arms attended to and recheck the Uster U percent.

Check that the drafting device at the fly frame is only adding 'allowable' unevenness. By having Uster U per cent of finisher sliver, apply the following formula to envisage roving U per cent (U per cent of roving x 1.25) 2 = (U per cent of Finisher drawing x 1.25) 2 + K, K may be considered as 10.

If the actual roving U per cent is considerably greater than the expected U per cent value, then go for the drafting system, checking conditions of rollers, cots, aprons, roller pressure, setting, draft distribution etc. One feasible cause could also be that the total draft is too high. Also check by inspecting Spectrograms of rovings with greater U per cent that there is no interrupted work.

It is important to verify the condition of each and every cot and apron in the mill very frequently, which is practiced daily in Indonesia and once a week by a senior person in India; and any faulty cot / apron is right away put back.

It is noted that if the finisher drawing sliver's U per cent is 1.6; CV per cent of wrapping is 0.22 and the spectrogram proves no interrupted irregularity, then this sliver will function at fly frame with practically zero break; and this roving will function on ring frames with 2/3 breaks / 100 spindle hrs at ring frame working at real high speed considering ring spinning is well managed but in real life – mainly in textile industry sometimes something else will happen and mill could end up with 10 breaks / 100 spindle hrs at high speed.

Ring Frame control

Considering that a spinning mill has accepted all the steps mentioned above, even then the following points need to be focused upon:

Make sure that mechanical data is matching on all ring frames working on one mixing, changes in change pinion be done on 'group' basis. If the actual roving U per cent is considerably greater higher, then, go for the drafting system, conditions of rollers, cots, aprons, roller pressure, setting, draft distribution etc.

Cots and aprons should be tested daily – or at least once in 2/3 days. Also ring travellers should be altered on schedule.

To get a pulse on the functioning at ring frames, best is for the spinning manager himself to carry out snap round compromising all ring frames for number of spindles per frame not making yarn at various intervals of the day. This snap round does not bear much time. A worksheet to be maintained in the department with the following data:

. Date

. Time at start of Round

. Time at end of Round

. Dry Bulb degree Celsius

. Wet Bulb degree Celsius

. RH per cent

. Idle spindle report due to the below mentioned reasons:

1. Spindle break

2. Lapping: top roller, bottom roller

3. Roving: break

4. Mechanical

5. Other

It is noted that taking snap rounds is up to 2 spindles not making yarn per frame is pragmatic in good Indian mills and as low as less than 1 spindle not making yarn per frame in good Indonesian mills. In general, if a mill has 2 spindle or less not making yarn / frame (irrespective of the no. Of spindles / frame) then the mill is performing well.

At last consider control on Relative Humidity. A lot of spinning mills still apply wet and dry bulb thermometers. (Many a times water is not placed in wet bulb). The perfection here is exclusively dependent on the perfect judgment of the person who notes down the temperatures. However meters with digital display of both temp and RH are offered, it is recommended putting thermo hygrographs note down temperature and RH continuously for say 24 hrs. Every morning the spinning personnel should check the shape of the trace mainly of RH and in this regards they have to maintain some kind of standardized RH in the department.

There was doubt that with high speed spinning, traveller temperature will increase to blend polyester fibres in the yarn. Luckily nothing like this has happened and blend spinners can carefully run their ring frames even at 25,000 rpm.


It is observed that if a spinning mill follows the steps recommend as above, they can function their ring frames at speeds up to 25,000 rpm (It appears that 25,000 rpm is still the higher limit even at ITMAA Singapore October 2005) without either rising the breakage rate weakening yarn quality. The recommendation provided here is based on experts' experience of functioning with many spinning mills in India and Indonesia increases spinning productivity.